20170707, 12:44  #1 
Feb 2017
Nowhere
3×1,999 Posts 
The FibonacciChebyshev connection
Sounds like a lurid headline: "Investigators probe FibonacciChebyshev connection!" Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, or Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, 11701250) is famous for his mathematical work, which predated the printing press. The sequence named for him arose from a question he posed with regard to the reproduction of rabbits.
Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev, May 4 [May 16, New Style], 1821, Okatovo, Russia — November 26 [December 8], 1894, St. Petersburg, was a Russian mathematician, known for his work on the distribution of prime numbers, and also in real analysis. Obviously, the two men never met. They worked in different areas of mathematics. And yet, there is a connection between things named for them. On the one hand, we have the Fibonacci numbers. We can generalize these as follows: If a and b are integers, the quadratic polynomial x^2  a*x + b gives rise to two integer sequences (*F) F_{n}: F_{0} = 0, F_{1} = 1, F_{n+2} = a*F_{n+1}  b*F_{n} (*L) L_{n}: L_{0} = 2, L_{1} = a, L_{n+2} = a*L_{n+1}  b*L_{n} If the quadratic factors as (x  r)*(x  r') we may write these as (**) F_{n} = (r^n  r'^n)/(r  r'). and L_{n} = r^n + r'^n. These sequences are generalizations of the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers; they are polynomials in a and b. Where's the connection to Chebyshev? Well, once upon a time, long long ago, I was thinking about "reciprocal polynomials" F(z), for which F(z) = z^n*F(1/z), where n is the degree of F(z). It is easy to see that, if n is odd, then F(1) = 0; so, with irreducibility in mind, we assume that n is even, n = 2*k. Clearly the lead coefficient is 1. The quadratic case is F(z) = z^2  a*z + 1, which is irreducible for integers a other than 2 or 2. Anyway, it seemed clear to me (as I'm sure has been known for centuries) that F(z)/z^k can be expressed as a polynomial in X = z + 1/z. All that is needed is to express z^n + 1/z^n as a polynomial in z + 1/z, z^n + 1/z^n = T_{n}(z + 1/z) = T_{n}(X) That this is possible is easily shown by induction, using T_{0}(X) = 2, T_{1}(X) = X, and (z^n + 1/z^n)*(z + 1/z) = z^(n+1) + 1/z^(n+1) + z^(n1) + 1/z^(n1), or T_{n+1}(X) = X*T_{n}(X)  T_{n1}(X). We have T_{0}(X) = 2, T_{1}(X) = X, T_{2}(X) = X^2  2, T_{3}(X) = X^3  3*X, etc This is a sequence of monic polynomials with integer coefficients. Now, I was sure that these polynomials had been well known for a long time, but how? Then, it suddenly occurred to me: If you take z = exp(i*t), z + 1/z = 2*cos(t) and z^n + 1/z^n = 2*cos(n*t). That is, T_{n}(2*cos(t)) = 2*cos(n*t). In other words, the T_{n}(X) are (up to a change of scale and a constant multiplier) "Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind." They give the sequence L_{n} for the quadratic x^2  X*x + 1. The sequence F_{n} obviously gives the polynomials in X = z + 1/z for (z^n  1/z^n)/(z  1/z), which with z = exp(i*t) becomes sin(n*t)/sin(t). Thus, for the quadratic x^2  X*x + 1, the sequence F_{n} expresses sin(n*t)/sin(t) as polynomials in 2*cos(t). These are also monic with integer coefficients. They are (up to a change of scale and a constant multiplier) the "Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind." We have F_{0}(X) = 0, F_{1}(X) = 1, F_{2}(X) = X, F_{3}(X) = X^2  1, etc. Now, what happens if the constant term 1 is replaced by another constant b? As (*F) and (*L) show, we obtain a sequence of polynomials in two variables. One also has r' = b/r in (**), and we can write r + r' = sqrt(b)*(r/sqrt(b) + sqrt(b)/r). The (perhaps) most curious case is b = 1. In this case, the effect is simply to change the (rescaled) Chebyshev polynomials T_{n} and F_{n} by making all the coefficients positive. These (particularly the transformed F_{n}) are called the "Fibonacci polynomials," giving the formulas in (*L) and (*F) with b = 1 for x^2  a*x  1. Notes: The (rescaled) Chebyshev polynomials above allow very simple proofs by induction, that cos(n*t) is a polynomial with rational coefficients in cos(t), and that sin(n*t) is sin(t) times a polynomial in cos(t). The coefficients of the (rescaled) Chebyshev polynomials may easily be found using the well known power series method on the secondorder differential equation satisfied by the cosine, to develop a recursion relation. The formulas (*) give (perhaps) interesting composition formulas. Let n = a*b. Then T_{n}(X) = T_{a}(T_{b}(X)), and F_{n}(X) = F_{a}(T_{b}(X))*F_{b}(X) Last fiddled with by Dr Sardonicus on 20220114 at 21:16 Reason: Fix misstated formula 
20170707, 14:06  #2 
Dec 2012
The Netherlands
5×353 Posts 

20170708, 01:39  #3  
Feb 2017
Nowhere
176D_{16} Posts 
Quote:
It's clearly true if the reciprocal polynomial F(z) is irreducible in Q[x] and has degree greater than 1. In this case, the zeroes occur in reciprocal pairs, so the constant term is 1. The lead coefficient is therefore also 1. 

20170708, 13:04  #4  
Feb 2017
Nowhere
13555_{8} Posts 
Quote:
Fascinating, how I messed that up. I didn't even mean to post that last response. I must have hit "Submit reply" by mistake... What is clear about a reciprocal polynomial, is that the lead coefficient is equal to the constant term. [The coefficients of any two terms of complementary degree are always equal.] Beyond that... well, the zero polynomial is a reciprocal polynomial, and there's no way to make its lead coefficient equal to 1. So, you have to assume F(z) is not the zero polynomial. Given that, you can, of course, always assume it's monic, since it will have a nonzero lead coefficient, and you can just divide by it. And then, F(z) has lead coefficient and constant term both equal to 1. But that's not really what I had in mind. I'm only interested here in monic polynomials with integer coefficients. And there's no way around having to assume that F(z) is monic with integer coefficients  after all, e.g. z^2  (5/2)*z + 1 is a reciprocal polynomial. Last fiddled with by Dr Sardonicus on 20170708 at 13:07 

20170709, 10:59  #5 
Dec 2012
The Netherlands
5×353 Posts 
It's a nice tale!
Perhaps it would be a good idea to consider the link to the fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials. 
20170709, 13:18  #6  
Feb 2017
Nowhere
3·1,999 Posts 
Thanks for the kind words!
Quote:
The expression for L_{n} obviously generalizes to polynomials of any degree; the sum of the n^{th} powers of the roots of a monic polynomial in Z[x] forms a sequence of integers with interesting divisibility properties; perhaps the best known case with degree greater than 2 is Perrin's sequence for x^{3}  x  1. The sum of the n^{th} powers of the roots is the subject of Newton's identities, which I invite the interested reader to look up. Last fiddled with by Dr Sardonicus on 20170709 at 13:18 

20220115, 12:13  #7 
Feb 2004
France
929 Posts 
About Tn+1(X) = X*Tn(X)  Tn1(X) , the Book of HC Williams dedicated to Édouard Lucas talks about it. I'm not at home and cannot provide more information for now.

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