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Old 2008-06-08, 22:08   #1
fivemack
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Default Parallel memory bandwidth

I really don't understand the figures I'm getting from the code attached (compile with -O3 -lpthread)

It ought to allocate some memory, fill it with encrypted values using a routine which takes lots of CPU and negligible memory bandwidth, then run over it in a way such that each thread streams through a chunk while doing some matmul-like work in cache.

So I would expect that, if I use no more threads than I have CPUs, the initial fill will take on each thread parallel time proportional to 1/Nthread, and the streaming parts again will take time proportional to 1/Nthread.

Observed results on Q6600, with other jobs on the CPUs but at nice 19, are that both parts take the same amount of elapsed time no matter how many threads I'm using! I fear I'm missing something absolutely critical about memory systems ... have I screwed up something really obvious in the code? Do other people get the same shape of results on things other than a Q6600?

Code:
Started initialising with 1 threads at 0
Clearing from 0 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 55000000
Finished scanning after 74320000
74320000 
Started initialising with 2 threads at 129320000
Clearing from 0 to 134217728
Clearing from 134217728 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 54130000
Finished scanning after 77490000
76790000 77480000 
Started initialising with 3 threads at 260940000
Clearing from 0 to 89478485
Clearing from 89478485 to 178956970
Clearing from 178956970 to 268435455
Finished crypt setup after 54060000
Finished scanning after 77560000
76890000 77560000 77240000 
Started initialising with 4 threads at 392560000
Clearing from 0 to 67108864
Clearing from 67108864 to 134217728
Clearing from 134217728 to 201326592
Clearing from 201326592 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 54120000
Finished scanning after 79870000
77870000 79600000 79770000 78850000
Attached Files
File Type: txt memtest-thread.cpp.txt (2.7 KB, 251 views)
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Old 2008-06-08, 22:18   #2
fivemack
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Ah, I'm a fool; clock() tells me something like the total amount of CPU time used by all the threads in the program; adding loads of system("date") calls gave me results like

Code:
Started initialising with 2 threads at 129160000
Sun Jun  8 23:17:01 BST 2008
Clearing from 0 to 134217728
Sun Jun  8 23:17:01 BST 2008
Clearing from 134217728 to 268435456
Sun Jun  8 23:17:01 BST 2008
Sun Jun  8 23:17:28 BST 2008
Finished crypt setup after 55010000
so clock() has counted 55.01s during 28 real-time seconds.

What should I be using on linux for a reasonable-granularity (milliseconds would be good, microseconds would be lovely) system-wide clock? The RDTSC instruction has ideal granularity but isn't synced between processors, so I get odd effects if the thread moves between cores; clock() doesn't behave as I want.
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Old 2008-06-09, 00:52   #3
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I think clock_gettime() will give you what you want. Add -lrt to the compile command.

Code:
int usecs;
struct timespec tsstart, tsstop;

clock_gettime (CLOCK_REALTIME, &tsstart);
  ... code ...
clock_gettime (CLOCK_REALTIME, &tsstop);
usecs = ((tsstop.tv_sec - tsstart.tv_sec) * 1000000) + ((tsstop.tv_nsec - tsstart.tv_nsec) / 1000);
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Old 2008-06-09, 02:20   #4
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I modifed main to use clock_gettime(), and it seems to work correctly.

Code:
Started initialising with 1 threads at 0
Clearing from 0 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 53681925
Finished scanning after 153898136
153870000 
Started initialising with 2 threads at 207530000
Clearing from 0 to 134217728
Clearing from 134217728 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 26359791
Finished scanning after 81944416
159760000 155670000 
Started initialising with 3 threads at 420000000
Clearing from 0 to 89478485
Clearing from 89478485 to 178956970
Clearing from 178956970 to 268435455
Finished crypt setup after 17573829
Finished scanning after 56027011
158230000 152730000 153520000 
Started initialising with 4 threads at 630940000
Clearing from 0 to 67108864
Clearing from 67108864 to 134217728
Clearing from 134217728 to 201326592
Clearing from 201326592 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 13213695
Finished scanning after 42539267
159320000 153620000 156240000 155210000 
Started initialising with 5 threads at 843000000
Clearing from 0 to 53687091
Clearing from 53687091 to 107374182
Clearing from 107374182 to 161061273
Clearing from 214748364 to 268435455
Clearing from 161061273 to 214748364
Finished crypt setup after 10544309
Finished scanning after 34475833
168610000 168310000 168370000 163720000 164630000 
Started initialising with 6 threads at 1064320000
Clearing from 0 to 44739242
Clearing from 44739242 to 89478484
Clearing from 89478485 to 134217727
Clearing from 134217728 to 178956970
Clearing from 223696213 to 268435455
Clearing from 178956970 to 223696212
Finished crypt setup after 8789439
Finished scanning after 29550770
166060000 161380000 164540000 164330000 161220000 160590000 
Started initialising with 7 threads at 1283090000
Clearing from 0 to 38347922
Clearing from 38347922 to 76695844
Clearing from 76695844 to 115043766
Clearing from 115043766 to 153391688
Clearing from 230087533 to 268435455
Clearing from 191739611 to 230087533
Clearing from 153391689 to 191739611
Finished crypt setup after 7548236
Finished scanning after 25014537
166460000 163690000 162110000 165890000 164650000 162300000 162810000 
Started initialising with 8 threads at 1502270000
Clearing from 0 to 33554432
Clearing from 33554432 to 67108864
Clearing from 134217728 to 167772160
Clearing from 167772160 to 201326592
Clearing from 201326592 to 234881024
Clearing from 67108864 to 100663296
Clearing from 100663296 to 134217728
Clearing from 234881024 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 6609198
Finished scanning after 22518269
170590000 169660000 164540000 159810000 169990000 168710000 167650000 166740000 
Started initialising with 9 threads at 1725600000
Clearing from 0 to 29826161
Clearing from 29826161 to 59652322
Clearing from 208783132 to 238609293
Clearing from 59652323 to 89478484
Clearing from 178956970 to 208783131
Clearing from 89478485 to 119304646
Clearing from 119304647 to 149130808
Clearing from 149130808 to 178956969
Clearing from -238609294 to -208783133
Segmentation fault
The segfault is simply due to 9*N > 2^31.

Greg
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Old 2008-06-09, 04:00   #5
frmky
 
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I moved the i to the end, and here's the result on the quad-core Barcelona. The first step seems to have near-linear speedup up to 14 threads. Not sure what happened there with 15 threads. The second step isn't quite so good, but ok up to 12 threads. Beyond 12, though, things slow down. Perhaps this is in part due to the NUMA architecture...

Code:
Started initialising with 1 threads at 0
Clearing from 0 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 53696751
Finished scanning after 153868902
153840000 
Started initialising with 2 threads at 207520000
Clearing from 0 to 134217728
Clearing from 134217728 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 26419972
Finished scanning after 82081925
159310000 154490000 
Started initialising with 3 threads at 419650000
Clearing from 0 to 89478485
Clearing from 89478485 to 178956970
Clearing from 178956970 to 268435455
Finished crypt setup after 17618014
Finished scanning after 55813765
157650000 151940000 153040000 
Started initialising with 4 threads at 630130000
Clearing from 0 to 67108864
Clearing from 67108864 to 134217728
Clearing from 134217728 to 201326592
Clearing from 201326592 to 268435456
Finished crypt setup after 13212915
Finished scanning after 43587470
165670000 157040000 161180000 164280000 
Started initialising with 5 threads at 848620000
Clearing from 0 to 53687091
Clearing from 53687091 to 107374182
Clearing from 107374182 to 161061273
Clearing from 161061273 to 214748364
Clearing from 214748364 to 268435455
Finished crypt setup after 10572543
Finished scanning after 33951399
163450000 156580000 162460000 162980000 157330000 
Started initialising with 6 threads at 1064900000
Clearing from 0 to 44739242
Clearing from 44739242 to 89478484
Clearing from 89478484 to 134217726
Clearing from 134217726 to 178956968
Clearing from 223696210 to 268435452
Clearing from 178956968 to 223696210
Finished crypt setup after 8810310
Finished scanning after 29447003
166510000 160700000 163260000 163770000 165770000 157490000 
Started initialising with 7 threads at 1284250000
Clearing from 0 to 38347922
Clearing from 38347922 to 76695844
Clearing from 76695844 to 115043766
Clearing from 230087532 to 268435454
Clearing from 191739610 to 230087532
Clearing from 153391688 to 191739610
Clearing from 115043766 to 153391688
Finished crypt setup after 7553484
Finished scanning after 25862978
174560000 174130000 173760000 173890000 172110000 167760000 166990000 
Started initialising with 8 threads at 1511620000
Clearing from 0 to 33554432
Clearing from 33554432 to 67108864
Clearing from 67108864 to 100663296
Clearing from 234881024 to 268435456
Clearing from 201326592 to 234881024
Clearing from 167772160 to 201326592
Clearing from 134217728 to 167772160
Clearing from 100663296 to 134217728
Finished crypt setup after 6611317
Finished scanning after 22663095
167770000 167610000 164150000 166910000 145270000 162130000 159510000 158960000 
Started initialising with 9 threads at 1732220000
Clearing from 0 to 29826161
Clearing from 29826161 to 59652322
Clearing from 59652322 to 89478483
Clearing from 208783127 to 238609288
Clearing from 89478483 to 119304644
Clearing from 178956966 to 208783127
Clearing from 149130805 to 178956966
Clearing from 119304644 to 149130805
Clearing from 238609288 to 268435449
Finished crypt setup after 5877745
Finished scanning after 21875875
174680000 177530000 173600000 176700000 170500000 166270000 164520000 164210000 175280000 
Started initialising with 10 threads at 1962560000
Clearing from 0 to 26843545
Clearing from 26843545 to 53687090
Clearing from 80530635 to 107374180
Clearing from 53687090 to 80530635
Clearing from 107374180 to 134217725
Clearing from 241591905 to 268435450
Clearing from 214748360 to 241591905
Clearing from 187904815 to 214748360
Clearing from 161061270 to 187904815
Clearing from 134217725 to 161061270
Finished crypt setup after 5309065
Finished scanning after 21787666
190470000 194330000 191280000 192950000 184650000 189020000 192540000 189630000 179410000 171860000 
Started initialising with 11 threads at -2085257296
Clearing from 0 to 24403223
Clearing from 24403223 to 48806446
Clearing from 97612892 to 122016115
Clearing from 48806446 to 73209669
Clearing from 73209669 to 97612892
Clearing from 122016115 to 146419338
Clearing from 244032230 to 268435453
Clearing from 219629007 to 244032230
Clearing from 195225784 to 219629007
Clearing from 170822561 to 195225784
Clearing from 146419338 to 170822561
Finished crypt setup after 4922136
Finished scanning after 18890423
193390000 193890000 192310000 188750000 185470000 191740000 186920000 194140000 188130000 190110000 179570000 
Started initialising with 12 threads at -1838287296
Clearing from 0 to 22369621
Clearing from 22369621 to 44739242
Clearing from 178956968 to 201326589
Clearing from 44739242 to 67108863
Clearing from 156587347 to 178956968
Clearing from 134217726 to 156587347
Clearing from 111848105 to 134217726
Clearing from 89478484 to 111848105
Clearing from 67108863 to 89478484
Clearing from 201326589 to 223696210
Clearing from 246065831 to 268435452
Clearing from 223696210 to 246065831
Finished crypt setup after 4410209
Finished scanning after 18158087
200450000 201780000 197510000 201230000 192090000 201350000 188900000 197290000 200630000 194440000 185130000 190680000 
Started initialising with 13 threads at -1583697296
Clearing from 0 to 20648881
Clearing from 20648881 to 41297762
Clearing from 41297762 to 61946643
Clearing from 144542167 to 165191048
Clearing from 61946643 to 82595524
Clearing from 123893286 to 144542167
Clearing from 103244405 to 123893286
Clearing from 82595524 to 103244405
Clearing from 165191048 to 185839929
Clearing from 185839929 to 206488810
Clearing from 206488810 to 227137691
Clearing from 247786572 to 268435453
Clearing from 227137691 to 247786572
Finished crypt setup after 4101279
Finished scanning after 18832256
215520000 219340000 219720000 216210000 217750000 218230000 213370000 218400000 206500000 217310000 185260000 183990000 183760000 
Started initialising with 14 threads at -1311167296
Clearing from 0 to 19173961
Clearing from 19173961 to 38347922
Clearing from 38347922 to 57521883
Clearing from 153391688 to 172565649
Clearing from 57521883 to 76695844
Clearing from 134217727 to 153391688
Clearing from 115043766 to 134217727
Clearing from 95869805 to 115043766
Clearing from 76695844 to 95869805
Clearing from 172565649 to 191739610
Clearing from 191739610 to 210913571
Clearing from 249261493 to 268435454
Clearing from 230087532 to 249261493
Clearing from 210913571 to 230087532
Finished crypt setup after 3803282
Finished scanning after 20826194
208080000 210270000 208100000 206320000 206140000 217580000 206200000 205870000 203430000 209840000 207590000 181190000 215610000 193170000 
Started initialising with 15 threads at -1040767296
Clearing from 0 to 17895697
Clearing from 17895697 to 35791394
Clearing from 71582788 to 89478485
Clearing from 35791394 to 53687091
Clearing from 53687091 to 71582788
Clearing from 89478485 to 107374182
Clearing from 107374182 to 125269879
Clearing from 125269879 to 143165576
Clearing from 143165576 to 161061273
Clearing from 161061273 to 178956970
Clearing from 178956970 to 196852667
Clearing from 196852667 to 214748364
Clearing from 250539758 to 268435455
Clearing from 214748364 to 232644061
Clearing from 232644061 to 250539758
Finished crypt setup after 5329815
Finished scanning after 20002748
214290000 214470000 212210000 208610000 208940000 212690000 209020000 211850000 183190000 210660000 220880000 221580000 210490000 179710000 207040000
Greg
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Old 2008-06-09, 13:45   #6
fivemack
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Thanks for the help and for the runs on the large machine. I suspect this is a case where I see good scaling because the single thread is badly written and very slow - it's getting 665MB/sec.

I can get a pretty good speedup by unrolling the loop four times; I hoped I could get a better speedup by using SSE2 instructions to read the addresses, but using

Code:
__m128i A,B;
A = _mm_load_si128 ((__m128i*)j);
B = _mm_shuffle_epi32(A, 0x1E);
a = _mm_cvtsi128_si32 (A);
b = _mm_cvtsi128_si32 (_mm_srli_epi64(A,32));
c = _mm_cvtsi128_si32 (B);
d = _mm_cvtsi128_si32 (_mm_srli_epi64(B,32));
is about half the speed of a=j[0];b=j[1];c=j[2];d=j[3] on K8, and about 80% the speed on core2. I suppose SSE shuffles are expensive and there's probably a better way of getting the four dwords out of an __m128i.

On a dual-quad-core Xeon with the new timing routines and the more efficient inmost loop (attached) I get

Code:
nproc/setup/loop/implied bw
1  58.26  59.45  1.682GB/sec
2  28.75  31.62  3.162GB/sec
3  19.02  26.78  3.734GB/sec
4  14.49  25.77  3.880GB/sec
so the setup is 100%-parallel as expected but I'm running hard into bandwidth issues when going beyond two threads. On a dual-dual-K8 I get

Code:
nproc/setup/loop/implied bw/best thread/implied theory
1  49.21  64.78  1.544GB/sec  64.78  1.544
2  24.04  43.32  2.308GB/sec  29.56  3.382
3  16.31  30.52  3.277GB/sec  22.32  4.480
4  12.20  24.71  4.047GB/sec  18.37  5.444
Attachment 2502
Attached Files
File Type: txt memtest-thread-newer.cpp.txt (4.2 KB, 231 views)

Last fiddled with by fivemack on 2008-06-09 at 13:45
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Old 2008-06-09, 17:33   #7
frmky
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by fivemack View Post
I can get a pretty good speedup by unrolling the loop four times; I hoped I could get a better speedup by using SSE2 instructions to read the addresses,
The SSE2 is better here. This is with other processes running niced in the background.

Code:
NOSSE
1   59.809   111.76   0.895 GB/s
2   29.735   57.522   1.738 GB/s
3   19.988   41.221   2.426 GB/s
4   14.963   31.942   3.131 GB/s

Using SSE2
1   59.742   98.558   1.105 GB/s
2   29.797   48.809   2.049 GB/s
3   19.904   33.326   3.000 GB/s
4   15.014   24.534   4.076 GB/s
Greg
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Old 2008-06-09, 18:24   #8
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Something interesting ... removing the three if (stream==0) printf's doubled the SSE2 code's bandwidth but didn't affect the non-SSE2 results much at all. I removed the printf's simply to make the output more compact. I have no clue why it has such a huge effect on the SSE2 code's speed.

I'm seeing near-linear speedup to 11 threads, and then again at 14 threads. This was a single run with other processes niced in the background, which may be part of the reason for the jumps above 11 threads.

Code:
SSE2
 1   60.123   45.733    2.187 GB/s
 2   29.546   23.760    4.209 GB/s
 3   19.624   15.190    6.583 GB/s
 4   14.783   11.529    8.674 GB/s
 5   11.989    9.575   10.444 GB/s
 6    9.973    7.821   12.786 GB/s
 7    8.555    6.850   14.599 GB/s
 8    7.517    5.923   16.883 GB/s
 9    6.870    5.522   18.109 GB/s
10    6.188    4.858   20.585 GB/s
11    6.887    4.425   22.599 GB/s
12    5.238    5.577   17.931 GB/s
13    4.931    3.955   25.284 GB/s
14    5.197    3.474   28.785 GB/s
15    4.124    4.123   24.254 GB/s
16    5.596    4.182   23.912 GB/s
Greg
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Old 2008-06-09, 18:30   #9
R.D. Silverman
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by frmky View Post
Something interesting ... removing the three if (stream==0) printf's doubled the SSE2 code's bandwidth but didn't affect the non-SSE2 results much at all. I removed the printf's simply to make the output more compact. I have no clue why it has such a huge effect on the SSE2 code's speed.

Greg

Perhaps the printf's were causing a pipeline stall?
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Old 2008-06-09, 19:40   #10
frmky
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by frmky View Post
The SSE2 is better here.
Taking a look at the AMD website, one of the improvements of the Opteron Barcelona cpu was to double the throughput of SSE/2/3 instructions.
Quote:
Previous AMD processors typically could execute a vectorized SSE instruction (for example, MULPS to perform four multiplies) every two clock cycles. In the AMD "Barcelona" processor, this performance is doubled so a new vectorized SSE instruction like MULPS can typically be issued every cycle. This feature is called SSE128 because an entire 128-bit SSE register is processed on each clock tick.
Would be worthwhile to try x86_64 SSE instructions in msieve's block Lanczos on this computer? Would it be a difficult change? (My assembly programming stopped at the 6502 instruction set.)

Greg
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Old 2008-06-09, 19:40   #11
xilman
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Quote:
Originally Posted by R.D. Silverman View Post
Perhaps the printf's were causing a pipeline stall?
A recent thread on the GMP developers' list was concerned with how very subtle code alignment issues could lead to large differences in execution speed. Further, the differences in speed with different code alignment wer very processor dependent. It doesn't surprise me at all that a far from subtle change, such as removing complex function calls, would have a similar effect.

Paul
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ยฌ โˆจ โˆง โŠ• โ†’ โ† โ‡’ โ‡ โ‡” โˆ€ โˆƒ โˆ„ โˆด โˆต โŠค โŠฅ โŠข โŠจ โซค โŠฃ โ€ฆ โ‹ฏ โ‹ฎ โ‹ฐ โ‹ฑ
โˆซ โˆฌ โˆญ โˆฎ โˆฏ โˆฐ โˆ‡ โˆ† ฮด โˆ‚ โ„ฑ โ„’ โ„“
๐›ข๐›ผ ๐›ฃ๐›ฝ ๐›ค๐›พ ๐›ฅ๐›ฟ ๐›ฆ๐œ€๐œ– ๐›ง๐œ ๐›จ๐œ‚ ๐›ฉ๐œƒ๐œ— ๐›ช๐œ„ ๐›ซ๐œ… ๐›ฌ๐œ† ๐›ญ๐œ‡ ๐›ฎ๐œˆ ๐›ฏ๐œ‰ ๐›ฐ๐œŠ ๐›ฑ๐œ‹ ๐›ฒ๐œŒ ๐›ด๐œŽ๐œ ๐›ต๐œ ๐›ถ๐œ ๐›ท๐œ™๐œ‘ ๐›ธ๐œ’ ๐›น๐œ“ ๐›บ๐œ”