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Old 2019-08-06, 22:51   #4
Dr Sardonicus
 
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Feb 2017
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The symbol \ll isn't just an inequality symbol. In analytic number theory, if f and g are functions of one variable (in particular, a positive integer variable)

f(x)\;\ll\;g(x)

indicates that there is a (positive) constant k such that

f(n) \;\le\; k\cdot g(n)

for sufficiently large n. The notation is due to Vinogradov.
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