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 2019-08-06, 22:51 #4 Dr Sardonicus     Feb 2017 Nowhere 22·5·173 Posts The symbol $\ll$ isn't just an inequality symbol. In analytic number theory, if f and g are functions of one variable (in particular, a positive integer variable) $f(x)\;\ll\;g(x)$ indicates that there is a (positive) constant k such that $f(n) \;\le\; k\cdot g(n)$ for sufficiently large n. The notation is due to Vinogradov.